First-principles study of the reconstruction of MgM2O4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co) spinel surface
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MgM2O4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co) spinels, which transform into rock-salt phases on Mg incorporation, are attractive cathode materials for future Mg battery applications. In this study, we investigated the energetics and reconstruction of MgM2O4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co) spinel surfaces using ﬁrst-principles calculations. We found that the MgM2O4 spinels stabilized when the Mg atoms in the topmost layer occupied the rock-salt-like sites. With an increase in the number of Mg atoms, the rock saltphase preferentially grew on the spinel surface rather than in the bulk. These features agree well with the core–shell growth of the rock-salt phase observed by recent aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements.
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